Thursday, April 15, 2021

4/15/21 Report - Fossil Footprints. Comparing Beach and Inland Metal Detecting. Auction Coming Soon.

Written by the TreasureGuide for the exclusive use of the Treasure Beaches Report.

Recent Beach Ring Find.

Neanderthal Children Frollicking During a Day at the Beach.

Some 100,000 years ago, an extended family of 36 Neanderthals walked along a beach, with the kids jumping and frolicking in the sand, scientists report after analyzing the beachgoers' fossilized footprints in what is now southern Spain.

In June 2020, two biologists discovered the tracks on MatalascaƱas beach, in DoƱana National Park, after a period of intense storms and high tides...

Here is the link for more of that article.

100,000-year-old Neanderthal footprints show children playing in the sand | Live Science

Some things never change.


I took a little trip to the beach and found the ring above.  I've been dong most of my detecting on that wooded lot I keep talking about.  It is a short walk from home and I can do it anytime I want.  Very convenient.

There are some big differences between metal detecting the beach or an inland site.  There are also many similarities.  I thought it might be instructive to take a look at some of the big similarities and differences.  I'll start with the differences.

One of the most important differences is that an inland site will remain pretty much the same from day to day, and a beach will be changed, sometimes dramatically from one day to the next.  On an inland site, items mostly stay put.  They can get moved by animals, or people, and they can get covered by leaves and things, but day to day, things don't get moved very much on an inland site - especially if no one else is hunting the site or there are no construction projects or anything.   Items can remain about where they were lost for a long time.

That makes it easier to interpret a land site.  There may be context.  The position of items can tell you a lot.  

The sledge hammer heads I found were lined up next next to each other.  They were neatly arranged.  They were just covered by earth.  The same thing with the scythe blades.  They were laying as if they were just stacked together.  On the other hand, some items, such as many of the twisted wire barrel hoops and many of the railraod spikes were seemingly randomly scattered around the lot.

You might find stratification on an inland site, but in this case it hasn't been very noticable, but so far I have mostly been digging large and near-surface items.  Some are about two feet deep, but items, such as the spikes have been found at varying depths.  Stratification might become apparent at a later time.  Many of the items I've been digging appear to come from the same time period too.

One thing that is similar for both types of sites, is the clustering.  Clustering happens on the beach as a result of the moving water that moves items, but also because of patterns of human behavior.  Clustering due to human activity can be very apparent on the higher dry sand part of the beach where the water doesn't move things around so much.

There are definite clusters on the inland site.  The sledge hammer heads were found together as if they were just put there.  So were the scyther blades.  I just found an area that has a bunch of rusted nails.  I've found few scattered nails on the site, which surprised me.  There was a tightly packed area of bolts, spikes and rail anchors, although they were not as organized as the hammer heads and scythe blades.  It was more like they were dumped than placed, although they could have been scattered later.

The fact that there is definite clustering on both types of sites means that similar search patterns can be effectively employed.  On an inland site, trees and brush get in the way if you want to do a tight grid.  Still, a loose search pattern can be useful to quickly identify larger target-rich areas, no matter which type of site you are hunting.

I never expected to find so many items on the lot I am detecting.  Yesterday I found nearly a hundred more railroad spikes tightly packed in one small area.  They were obviously dumped or placed there together.  I sure didn't expect so many targets when I started on that lot.

Since systematic or meaningful clustering can be found on both types of sites, I recommend making a map, if only mental, of the place your are detecting, keeping track of what kind of items are being found together and trying to figure out how they got there.  On the beach, the water has a lot to do with where you will find items - more so on the front beach.   That is one big difference, but no matter whether the clusering is due to man or nature, it can be very helpful to notice associations and patterns.


Yesterday I posted a picture sent in by JamminJack who was wondering what one fellow was doing.

Dan B. said,  Awfully hard to tell without motion, but the first thing to come to mind from his stance is that he may have been dowsing. Or maybe a telescoping shell scoop. I have seen those that beep if you pick up something metal in it.

Joe D. said, I don't know what that guy is holding, but that look's like a detector lying on the beach behind him!

Thanks guys.

It does look like a metal detector on the ground behind him. Maybe he is holding a pinpointer or digger.




Happy hunting,

Wednesday, April 14, 2021

4/14/21 Report - Snowbird Droppings. More Rusty Finds. Big Flash From Astroid Over Treasure Coast?

Written by the TreasureGuide for the exclusive use of the Treasure Beaches Report.

NYPD Badge Recently Found on Treasure Coast
Find and photo by Mike A.

The snow birds are still here, and they are leaving more than their tracks in the sand. Mike A. recently found this NYPD badge.

Mike said, Found at Hutchinson island resort on Thursday- contacted nypd but haven’t heard back. Wonder how it got on the beach...


JamminJack saw the following on the Sebastian beach cam.

Image From Sebastian Beach Cam
Submitted by JamminJack

Here is what Jack had to say.

Been a while. Usually, do not check when sand fills in. Reason I sent this image because I cannot figure out what the person in foreground is doing. It looked like a telescopic rod and reel, but I think it is a wand detector. Let me know.

Still trying to come down. The more I delay the harder to find a place. No one is going back home and more coming to Sebastian, etc.

Did you have a chance to call or go by the RR Museum in Taylor Creek?

As for your 
[detecting] site, there were several similar lots in St. Augustine with nothing but RR related items. Was told they would dig a hole and buried a lot of the stuff after redoing tracks or tearing down older structures, etc.

I can't see the item Jack thought might be a wand detector enough to say one way or the other.    What do you think?


Speaking of that site I've been detecting, I was channel surfing last night when I caught a bit of wisdom that I'll file away for some time when I need of a good smile. An item that turned out be a caster was dug up, and then I heard some of that Oak Island wisdom I've come to expect, "The heavier it is, the older it is." Well that reminded me of an item I started to dig a couple days ago. I had it uncovered but couldn't get it out, because I needed an axe or something heavier than I had to free it from some roots. So I turned off TV and got my axe and went out to retrieve the object.

Here it is.

Recently Dug Railroad Fishplate
With 6.5 oz. Coca Cola Bottle For Size.

I figure that one must be heavy enough to be about five hundred years old.  Just joking about the age, of course.

A fishplate is a metal bar that is bolted to the ends of two rails to join them together. The name is derived from fish, a wooden bar with a curved profile used to strengthen a ship's mast.

Then after lugging the fishplate back, I still had a little daylight, so grabbed my detector for a little more detecting and came away with some more relics. 

Still not cleaned, here are some of those.

Three Newly Dug Blades.
Bottle for size.

Must have been quite a battle!  Just kidding.  Looks like scythe blades.

I'll get them cleaned and inspect them better in the future.


Some Treasure Coast residents, along with many others across Florida, were lucky enough to see a bright streak and flash in the sky Monday night.  Regretfully I missed it myself, but one local man was lucky enough to catch the impressive show on his video camera.  You can see it by using this link.

A few days earlier a we were warned that GW4, a space rock 16 feet in diameter, would be passing just over 12,000 miles from the Earth's surface at about 18,700 miles per hour.

Here is the link for more about that.

Heads up! Small asteroid to pass very close on April 12 | Space | EarthSky


Happy hunting,

Tuesday, April 13, 2021

4/13/21 Report - Very Nice Ring Find. Finds and Emails From Readers.

  Written by the TreasureGuide for the exclusive use of the Treasure Beaches Report.

Very Unique Silver Ring Found by Nick A.

I just received some find photos along with the following email from Nick A.

Hi everyone, just thought I'd share a recent find. I finally tried a spot I've been meaning to check. The first day I got about 30 or so coins, the second day about 20 and the third day only 8 coins but I did find an unusual large mens ring. 

It took a lot of soaking and scrubbing and it's about as clean as I can get it. 
Its marked .925 for sterling silver and I suspect the eagle is probably gold plated. There is also a stone, maybe black onyx, under the eagle.
I've lived here on South Hutchinson Island for 62 years and the beach renurishment sand makes me sick. The beaches here will never be the same. I have a house full of shells, arrowheads and many artifacts I've found over the years mostly between Ocean Village and Blind Creek. Now, like the pics you just showed, it's just a barren mound of sand. The SLC college boy in charge probably has a wall full of diplomas but none for common sense. The heavy brown sand they're going to get 3.5 miles offshore is out there for a reason, it's a whole different ecosystem than natural beach sand. 

Well, I better stop there!!
Happy hunting!

Thanks for sharing Nick.  That is a very cool ring find.  Here is how it looked before cleaning.

Ring As Found by Nick A.

It is not uncommon to find the better things near the end of a hunt as the site gets cleaned up.

Good idea to try those spots you've been thinking about.  And keep at it until you get it all.


I received this email from Dan B.

I have been cleaning house and came across my collection of iron conglomerates we retrieved from shiprecks nearby during our salvage efforts. I would say 1715 fleet because that is likely what all of these are, but there are the exceptions.

I wanted to show these because they show how much the ocean will cause an encrustation around the iron and create a conglomerate of shells, sand, iron oxide, and anything else nearby. Many times the iron will be completely eaten away but a perfect mold of the item exists inside. Usually a dark smelly goo pours out when broken open.

The first two photos are what is left of some barrel hoop sections. The bottom, remnants of a square spike.

Like many people. I am yet to pull anything amazing from the wrecks off of the beach itself. These items were from a very successful salvage season. But I will tell you that many people avoid iron. So finding a conglomerate is a much more likely way to find something 300+ years old from our beach.

These are particularly heavy items but I have seen quite a few EO's just lying on the beach or in shell piles.

I will send some more interesting intact things when I have time.

Encrusted Objects
Photo by Dan B.

Encrusted Objects
Photo by Dan B.

Encrusted Object Void.
Photo by Dan B.

Thanks Dan.


The heavy rain we got the day before yesterday probably caused some erosion to some of the bigger dune faces.

Nothing very exciting in the forecast.  


I hate to think of hurricane season coming, with our country already gone schizo (in more ways than one).  And I wonder when or if the left-behind purple minions will discover how they are being used by their anti-truth reality-inversion leaders who are making out like bandits.

Happy hunting,

Monday, April 12, 2021

4/12/21 Report - Sandy Beaches Along The Treasure Coast. Renourishment Project. Metal Detecting Inland.


Written by the TreasureGuide for the exclusive use of the Treasure Beaches Report.

Fort Pierce South Jetty Beach Monday.

Reminds me of that Beattles' song - here comes the sand (doo doo doo), or something like that.

Anyhow it looks like the sand will be arriving soon.  Don't know how many times they do that, but it seems way too often. 

Fort Pierce South Jetty Monday.

Didn't mean to give the finger, but the sand is piling on John Brooks beach without any big project to help. 

John Brooks Beach Monday.

One man was waving his magic metal detector over that stuff.

It's everywhere!


John Brooks Beach Monday.

Walton Rocks Monday.

Walton Rocks was just a touch better.


The past couple of days I've been talking about metal detecting a partially cleared Treasure Coast inland lot.  You might wonder why anyone would bother to metal detect a place like that.  It is hard work, not nearly as pleasant as a walk on the beach and all you find a lot of old rusty stuff.

As you know different people are interested in different kinds of things.  Some people want to find the most valuable items they can find - maybe a big diamond ring.  But other people want to find an old Spanish coin from an old shipwreck.  It depends to some extent on what you like and what you are interested in.

I've gone over the various reasons that people metal detect before.  Some do it for recreation; some do it for exercise; and some do it for economic reasons and hope to find something valuable.  There are still other reasons.

When you look at the lot I've been detecting, you might not think there would be much hope of finding anything there - valuable or not.  There is little evidence that much of anything ever went on there, but I've learned that you can find something of interest and something of some value almost anywhere.  I'm always curious to find out what is there.  It presents a challenge, and I like to uncover the history.  

There is history everywhere.   I don't need some rumor or legend to tell me something happened here or there.  The earth has been inhabited for a long time - even before coins and metals.  I've seen native American pot shards on the ground not far from this metal detecting site, as well as a broken clay pipe, so I  know there has been activity around this area for a long time.

One way I could answer why I would metal detect this area would be, "Because it is there."  And another part of it would be, "You never know."   You never know what you will find.  There is the unknown part of it, as well as the uncovering of a very specific part of local history.

There is always the possibility of finding something valuable anywhere.  I fully expect to find something of economic value, even if that is not one my primary motivations.  I've seen old railroad padlocks selling for nearly two hundred dollars, and have no doubt the one I just found would sell, even if not for a lot.  It doesn't have a railroad marking on it.  Many of the most desirable are marked with the railroad name.  And I don't have the key to it.  That might come along later.  Otherwise, it is in very nice condition.  If I had the key I think it would operate.

Before I'm done with this lot I do expect to find either an old coin or a piece of old jewelry or something like that.  The chances of a valuable piece of jewelry on that lot is much lower than the chances of finding a nice piece of jewelry at the beach.  I've found gold rings in wooded places before.  

The chances of finding a nice old coin worth something is also low, but there is some chance.  Most likely it would not be a great condition, but there is always the possibility.

When people find an old lock they start thinking treasure chest or something like that.  I don't know what this lock was used for, but maybe I'll get more clues about that later.

There are many benefits of detecting places like this.  If you are mostly a beach hunter, you'll likely learn more about your detector and detecting by detecting other types of sites.  You might call it cross training.  In this lot I've been using detectors and techniques that I haven't used for a long time.  It helps me add to my knowledge and skill.

I do expect to find some more interesting things.  I enjoyed finding the lock and conducting the research on it.  I do expect to find some other interesting relics, but I also still expect to find either an old coin or piece of jewelry. We'll see.

I'm at what I would call the second level of searching on just a few parts of this site.  Those are the areas where away a lot of the large and surface items.  Most of the lot is still unexplored.

The rain we got yesterday would be a big help if I was in the final stages.   At level three I would have most of the easy to detect items removed and would be focusing more on deeper and smaller items.  The moist soil would make the small deep targets easier to detect.

That is something I also do on the beach.  When there is a good coin hole, the easier targets are removed first, and then I slow down and focus on the faint signals produced by deeper and smaller targets.

There are a lot of reasons to detect lots like the one I have been working.  It is close to home and I can do it anytime I feel like detecting.  I'm curious, like to learn, and like to detect, but I also like uncovering the history of that particular piece of ground.  I do expect to find an old coin or piece of jewelry, but that is just an added benefit.  If my primary motive was finding the most valuable piece possible, I'd drive to the beach, but for me there is much more to it than that.

Happy hunting,

Sunday, April 11, 2021

4/11/21 Report - Working An Inland Site and Some Finds. An Old O. M. Edwards Padlock.

 Written by the TreasureGuide for the exclusive use of the Treasure Beaches Report.

Yesterday I gave you a site map of a partially cleared lot that I began to metal detect and summarized some of the finds up to that point.  I mentioned that since many of the large and surface targets were removed from some areas, I expected to start finding some smaller items..  I was also hoping to start finding some marked items that might provide more information about the site.  Well my timing was right, and it happened.

First I found the small item below.  I'll get back to it later, but after a few more scattered spikes, I found the above lock, which I really like.  The patina when it was found is like like the third picture, but I couldn't wait to see if I could get the cover for the keyhole to open so I sprayed some WD40 on the front of the lock.  Then the keyhole cover opened nicely.  And not only does it open, but the spring works very well.  

The chain seems to go with the lock.  At the bottom of the lock is a connector that is broken, which allowed the chain to separate.

The shank of the lock is marked O. M. Edwards Company Syracuse N.Y.  The keyhole cover is marked "trade PAOWNY mark."

My research on this lock is just beginning. but I found one site that listed the O. M. Edwards company operating in Syracuse in 1889.  

Here is that link.

A List of Syracuse Businesses from an 1948 Syracuse Centennial Dinner Program (

Since the construction of the railroad in Fort Pierce was around 1894, some of the finds I am making, including this one, could come from that construction period. Maybe I'll find more evidence one way or the other before long.

I've seen some similar, but not exactly the same padlocks made by the O. M. Edwards company for sale on eBay.  They were patented as early as 1913.  I haven't fount the exact model shown above yet.

The following handy paper was found on one padlock listed on eBay.  It gives a summary of the kinds of things the O. M. Edwards company made.  I think his biggest hit was a device for opening windows on passenger cars.

Products of the O. M. Edwards Company.

One eBay listing provides the following information relevant to the O. M. Edwards.  Because of his connection with the Pennsylvania (PA), the Ohio Western, (OW) and the New York Central (NYC) railroads OM named his estate PAOWNYC.  Additional research, however, shows that the OW actually refers to the Ontario and Western rather than Ohio Western.

As I said above, before finding the padlock, I found the following item, which at the time seemed to me to mark the beginning of some of what I might call the second level finds of the site.

If you hit a junky area, you might be tempted to give up and quit on it, but if you remove some of the junk, much of the smaller and better stuff will then be found.

Shortly before finding the lock, I found the plate with six split rivets.  I took that as a signal that the second level of finds was about to begin.  

This items is about 2 inches by 1 3/8 inches. Looking at the back, you can see the ends of the one split rivet still in place.

Split rivets are used to connect soft materials such as leather or wood.  Whatever this one connected, by the length of the rivet you can tell that the material was not thick.  I'm guessing leather, but that is just a wild guess at this point.  It is slight arched.  

What do you think it connected?  Any ideas?

There are two general takeaways.  The first is the need to remove to clean up an site by removing big targets before getting to the smaller and better stuff.  I've found that true on the beach.  After removing coins, you might get to the smaller rings and things.

Another important point, is that this is just one random lot.  For every lot like this that has been detected there are hundreds that have not.  I had no reason to believe there was anything on this lot, but decided to find out.  I expected that it would have something of interest, but I didn't know what.  And I'm not near done with it yet.  I'm still expecting more big and small targets and some better things.  I've only hit one or two coins so far, and they were both fairly recent pennies even though they were so badly corroded I couldn't identify the dates.

I've mostly been using the Ace in all-metals mode.  It does well near the power lines and has a nice small coil.  At some point, I'll probably switch detectors.


I'm getting a nice thunder storm right now.  I have some older finds to clean up.  A couple of those I think are shipwreck related.


We'll be getting a 3 - 4 foot surf.  The wind is still mostly from the south, but the thunder storm might open up some areas.  

Happy hunting,


Saturday, April 10, 2021

4/10/21 Report - Working An Inland Site. Lost Golden City Discovered. South Wind Still.


Written by the TreasureGuide for the exclusive use of the Treasure Beaches Report.

Rough Map of Partially Cleared Lot Being Detected.

I thought I'd summarize my progress on the partially cleared lot that I detected a little.   Before being cleared there were areas so densely packed with briars and vines that it was almost impenetrable.  Now some parts of the lot can be detected, but not all.  I spent a little time wandering around with a metal detector just to do a little sampling.  I didn't know if anything much would be on that lot, but there is more there than I expected.  So far it has been mostly railroad hardware.  Early on I found four sledge hammer heads that seemed to be lined up in a row next to each other.  That is area C on the site map shown above.

There were wire barrel loops scattered all over the middle third of the lot (red circles).  Individual spikes, bolts and anchors are scattered around too.

Individual Scattered Items
Found in This Area - No Apparent Groupings.

I discovered an area of several square yards where I dug probably around thirty rail anchors, fish bolts and railroad spikes.  They were packed so close together that they were hard to pinpoint and remove.  Most were one to two feet deep.  I have not removed all the signals from that area yet.  I intend to.

Area A Where Much
Railroad Hardware Dug.

Associated with that grouping was two barrel or keg hoops with all the nails still in place and a twisted wire loop that would have gone around the center of the barrel.  Those three hoops were together on top of each other, and so with the nails still in place in the hoops, it looked to me as if the barrel wood deteriorated in place.  It might be that the hardware was in the barrel when it was abandoned, but I'm not sure of that.  If so, it looks like somehow the hardware got scattered around a bit.

The third area of interest for me is labeled D on the site map.  That is where I found part of a two-sided enameled sign and a drinking cup.  There are stones and pieces of concrete also in that area.  That area definitely needs more exploration.

Area D.  Sign and Cup Found Here.

A second similar tin cup was discovered towards the center of the site.   You can see that on the map.  It did not seem to be associated with any other items.

The area to the east (bottom of the map) produced a few miscellaneous items, including a 22 shell, a shotgun shell, and a modern penny and some modern junk.  That area has not produced much railroad hardware - just a few scattered iron items.

Most Cleared Area.
No Groupings Discovered Here

What I've learned so far is that there are a lot of items on this lot.  I didn't really expect so much.  Many items have been found in the first few explorations, and from what I've seen so far, it will undoubtedly take many days to completely detect this lot.  So far I've mostly removed big iron items.  I'm sure smaller items will come later.

The railroad items seem to be from the same time period.  I  haven't found anything to help me date them yet, but hope to eventually find some clues that will help me do thatk.  Maybe they were from when the railroad was constructed.  I don'know.  I can't account for why there are so many barrel or keg hoops scattered around, or why there is so much railroad hardware scattered around.  From the many hoops I've found, at least a dozen barrels are represented.  And they are at least fifty to a hundred yards from the tracks. 

I've not done a systematic thorough search yet - just an informal sampling.  I'm hoping to find some items that are marked or that give a more specific time period. 

I always say you can find something anywhere, but I never guessed this lot would have so much.

Relic hunting is definitely not as easy or pleasant as beach hunting.  You can't use a scoop in a place like this.  There is a lot of junk iron.  When you get a signal and start to dig, first you hit a mat of small roots and then a bunch of bigger roots.  You usually have to cut through some hefty roots before you can get an item out of the ground.

There are some similarities to beach hunting though.  There is clustering, although it is a different kind of clustering.  On an inland site, the clustering is not from the sifting and sorting of beach sand. Nonetheless, you assess the site and put together clues very much as you would on a beach.

I'll have the big items removed from a few areas soon.  I'd expect to start getting some smaller items then.


The Egyptian mission under Zahi Hawass discovered an ancient Egyptian city in Luxor - The Rise of Aten - that was lost under the sands 3000 years ago...

The excavation started in September 2020, and within weeks, to the team’s great surprise, formations of mud bricks began to appear in all directions. What they unearthed was the site of a large city in good condition of preservation, with almost complete walls and with rooms filled with tools for daily life.

The archaeological layers have laid untouched for thousands of years, left by the ancient residents as if it were yesterday.

The first goal of the mission was to date this settlement using hieroglyphic inscriptions found on clay caps of wine vessels. Historical references tell us the settlement consisted of three royal palaces of king Amenhotep III, as well as the empire’s administrative and industrial centre.

A large number of archaeological finds, such as rings, scarabs, coloured pottery vessels, and mud bricks bearing seals of king Amenhotep III’s cartouche, confirmed the dating of the city...

In Photos: Egyptologist Zahi Hawass announces discovery of 3000-year-old 'Lost Golden City' in Luxor - Ancient Egypt - Heritage - Ahram Online



Three to four foot surf, but the wind is from the south.  

Happy hunting,

Friday, April 9, 2021

4/9/21 Report - Nebra Sky Disk. Problems Assessing Artifacts. Operationism Adds Clarity. 150th Civil War Anniversary.

 Written by the Treasureguide for the exclusive use of the Treasure Beaches Report.

Nebra Sky Disk.
Source: See Wikipedia link below.

The disk, two bronze swords, two hatchets, a chisel, and fragments of spiral bracelets were discovered in 1999 by Henry Westphal and Mario Renner while they were treasure-hunting with a metal detector. Archaeological artifacts are the property of the state in Saxony-Anhalt. The hunters were operating without a license, and knew their activity constituted looting and was illegal. They damaged the disk with their spade and destroyed parts of the site. The next day, Westphal and Renner sold the entire hoard for 31,000 DM to a dealer in Cologne. The hoard changed hands within Germany during the next two years, being sold for up to a million DM. By 2001 knowledge of its existence had become public. In February 2002 the state archaeologist, Harald Meller, acquired the disk in a police-led sting operation in Basel from a couple who had put it on the black market for 700,000 DM. The original finders were eventually traced. In a plea bargain, they led police and archaeologists to the discovery site..

The precise dating of the Nebra sky disk depended upon the dating of a number of Bronze Age weapons, which were offered for sale with the disk and said to be from the same site. These axes and swords can be dated typologically to the mid-second millennium BCE. Radiocarbon dating of a birchbark particle found on one of the swords to between 1600 and 1560 BCE confirmed this estimate. This corresponds to the date of burial, at which time the disk had likely been in existence for several generations.

Research published in 2020 by archaeologists from Gothe University Frankfurt and Ludwig Maxmilian University of Munich casts doubt on this dating, however. After reevaluating prior research and the circumstances of the disk's discovery, the authors argue that the disk was likely not part of the cache of Bronze Age weapons, and therefore, cannot be dated with these artifacts. Instead they assert that the disk should be evaluated as an individual find. Since the authors contend it bears hallmarks of an Iron Age item, they place its origins instead in the first millennium BCE. This younger age, they argue, would significantly change the sometimes far-reaching cultural and historical conclusions that have been attributed to the disk.

According to an initial analysis of trace elements by x-ray flourescence by E. Pernicka, then at the University of Freiberg the copper originated at Bischofshofen in Austria, while the gold was thought to be from the Carpathian Mountains. A more recent analysis found that the gold used in the first phase was from the River Camon in Cornwald, United Kingdom. The tin present in the bronze was also of Cornish origin...

Nebra sky disk - Wikipedia

Now that is what I call an interesting artifact.

These days people often say "follow the science," but science may not be exactly what they think it is.  First of all, science is a process that should be characterized by large doses of humility and skepticism.  You don't see that when scientists become celebrities or TV experts.  Science, at its best, is a continual process of collecting and analyzing data and revising theories.  That is why they call it REsearch.

Despite the fact that you often see people who proudly announce their snap decisions about an item at first glance, this case shows that even after much study by highly accomplished authorities, there were still basic questions, such as the age and source of the items, that were not answered with absolute certainty.

One course that I think should be a required course for all college students is the philosophy of science.  And one topic of that course that should definitely be taught is operationism.

Amy Adams, as Giselle in the movie Enchanted, addressed the epistemological issue in the Academy Award nominated song How Do You Know.  ; )  But that is an important question.  How do you know?  What criteria did you use?  How did you measure it?   

Very often we just accept consensus or expert opinion, but experts are often wrong, and they change their mind.  And different experts will often have different opinions.  Scientists should be open to changing their mind.

Operationism says that definitions should be defined in the terms (or operations) used to measure (or determine) them.  If you give a weight, for example, how was it determined.  If you are talking about yourself and your weight, maybe you got on a particular home scale, as accurate or inaccurate as it is, and looked at the number closest to the dial.  But if you got on another scale, maybe your weight would be different.  And if you got weighed while on the space station, it would be different.  You need to describe the relevant procedures that are used so the conclusion can be understood and verified.  

In the case of the Nebra disk, exactly how was the age determined?  First they used a radiocarbon dating procedure on a piece of bark associated with one of the swords, not the disk itself, which is helpful information, but in a scientific setting more specifics would be necessary.  There are some people who believe that the disk is not from the same hoard as the swords, so that makes a big difference.  I am always skeptical of radiocarbon dating anyhow, but here we don't even know if the disk is associated with the sword, or how the bark got on the sword.  If you know the specifics of the operations used, you are in a much better position to accept, question or test the results.

Operationism is not only useful in science, it is useful anytime you want to be precise and understood.  You need to know how terms are defined, and in operationism, that means knowing the procedures used to measure them.

If you make claims about the race of a person, how did you determine their race, for example.   Race is a social construct.  There is no good test for race.  People sometimes use skin color, self-report, or  stories of ancestry - all of which are poor tests, as we've seen.  We know that those kinds of things can be wrong, but what about tests such as  Here is what their website says.

Creating an ethnicity estimate based on your DNA sample is a complex process based on probability, statistics, shared DNA, and ongoing research and science. AncestryDNA calculates your ethnicity estimate by comparing your DNA to a reference panel made up of thousands of people. Because reference panels and the way we analyze your DNA both change as we get more data, your ethnicity results can change as we get more data, too.

So here we are making a big deal out of race and ethnicity, although we should know that it is a social construct - an invented classification system without any good test or criteria.  

There is no way to test, determine, or prove the race of a person.  You'd think for reparations, you'd need some reasonable criteria for class inclusion, but they'll avoid that at all costs for reasons I don't need to elaborate on.  

Did you know black and white are not colors?

Color, or hue, is dependent on the dominant wavelength and independent of intensity or lightness.

Color varies in saturation, or intensity, as well as lightness.  Here is a chart for one of the many thousand discernable colors.

Chroma is the attribute of color that expresses its purity. Value is the lightness or darkness of a color and defines a color in terms of how close it is to white or black. Chroma and value are independent characteristics of color. For example, a color with a low chroma can have a light value while another low chroma color can have a dark value.

The use of operational defintions would advance many of our discussions and help solve many of our problems - both scientific and social.  It would help if people could actually give a good definition for the terms they use rather than trying to manipulate feelings.  Evil can only operate in obscurity, darkness and confusion.  That is why they sow it.

John 1:5 - The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness has not overcome it.


April 12 is the 150th anniversary of the beginning of the Civil War.

On April 12, 1861, Confederate troops fired the opening shots of the Civil War at Fort Sumpter in South Carolina. This month marks the 160th anniversary of the beginning of the war, the deadliest conflict ever fought on American soil. The Civil War lasted four years and resulted in an estimated 620,000 deaths and 1.5 million casualties. Approximately one in four soldiers that went to war never came back home. This impacted families, communities, and the entire country for generations to come...

Here is that link for more about that.

 April 12, 1861: The Civil War Begins | Fold3 HQ


Source: MagicSeaWeed,com.

Nothing much going on at the beach other than beach-goers and recent drops.

I was back on the vacant lot again for a little while.  The mosquitos are bad.

Happy hunting,